# pi123

Pi is one of the most important and fascinating numbers in mathematics. It is an irrational number, meaning that it cannot be expressed as a fraction of two integers. It is also a transcendental number, meaning that it is not the root of any polynomial with rational coefficients.

Pi is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. It is also the ratio of the volume of a sphere to the cube of its radius. Pi is used in many different areas of mathematics, including geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and statistics.

The history of pi can be traced back to ancient Egypt and Babylonia. The Egyptians used pi to calculate the area of circles and the volume of spheres. The Babylonians used pi to calculate the volume of cylinders.

The first person to calculate pi to a high degree of accuracy was Archimedes of Syracuse in the 3rd century BC. Archimedes used a polygon with 96 sides to calculate pi to two decimal places.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, mathematicians began to use infinite series to calculate pi. The most famous infinite series for pi is the Leibniz series:

## pi/4 = 1 – 1/3 + 1/5 – 1/7 + …

The Leibniz series is very slow to converge, but it was used to calculate pi to many decimal places in the 18th and 19th centuries.

In the 20th century, mathematicians began to use computers to calculate pi. In 1949, ENIAC, the first general-purpose computer, calculated pi to 2037 decimal places. In 1973, a computer calculated pi to 10 million decimal places.

Today, computers can calculate pi to trillions of decimal places. However, there is no end to the digits of pi. It is an irrational number, meaning that its decimal representation never ends or repeats.

Pi has many interesting properties. For example, it is the only number that is equal to its own square root plus one:

### sqrt(pi) + 1 = pi

Pi is also the only number that is equal to the sum of the inverse squares of all the prime numbers:

### 1/2^2 + 1/3^2 + 1/5^2 + … = pi^2/6

Pi is a very important number in mathematics, physics, and engineering. It is used to calculate the area and volume of circles and spheres, the wavelength of light, and the frequency of electricity.

Here are some examples of how pi is used in the real world:

• Navigation: Pi is used to calculate the distance between two points on Earth. This is important for navigation systems, such as GPS.
• Astronomy: Pi is used to calculate the orbits of planets and other objects in space. This is important for astronomers who are studying the universe.
• Engineering: Pi is used to design bridges, buildings, and other structures. This is important for engineers who want to make sure that their structures are strong and stable.
• Medicine: Pi is used to calculate the dosage of drugs and other medical treatments. This is important for doctors who want to make sure that their patients are getting the right amount of medication.
• Finance: Pi is used to calculate interest rates and other financial calculations. This is important for banks and other financial institutions.

Pi is a truly remarkable number. It is a number that is both simple and complex, and it is a number that is used in many different areas of our lives.